Retinoblastoma is a rare malignancy of the eye affecting children, most commonly four years old and younger. Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment aim to spare the eye, in some cases, enucleation (ie, removal of the eye) is required to prevent cancer metastases or recurrence. Enucleation procedures are primarily performed at specialty institutions and may involve the surgical placement of an implant in the orbit of the eye. Unique perioperative considerations are required because of the age of the child at the time of the diagnosis and procedure and the involvement of a parent or caregiver who will be caring for the child postoperatively. This article presents an overview of retinoblastoma and enucleation and discusses the care and management of the unique patient population undergoing enucleation.
Key words: retinoblastoma, enucleation, chemotherapy, implant, pediatric patient.